Glossary of terms

Barren Rock
Rock which accompanies the extraction of mineral ore and, due to its lack of minerals in sufficient quantities, is not considered as economically useful.
BAT
Best Available Technique, as defined in Directive 96/61/EC, means the most effective and advanced stage in the developments of activities and their methods of operation which indicate the practical suitability of particular techniques for providing in principle the basis for emission limit values designed to prevend and, where that is not practicable, generally to reduce emissions and the impact on the environment as a whole.
C1 Cost
Cash cost of production of copper concentrate, which among its other uses, is used to analyze the company’s competitive position in the industry, expressed in USD /lb.
Converter (blister) copper
A semi-product of the converter process.
Copper cathodes
The basic form of electrolytically-refined, the product of electrolytic copper refining.
Copper equivalent
Total volume of production of all metals translated into copper based on market prices.
Copper from purchased copper-bearing materials
Copper obtained from purchased copper-bearing materials (concentrates, scrap, blister).
Copper from own concentrates
Copper obtained from the company’s own mine production.
Copper wire rod
Drawn copper rod, usually with a diameter of 6-12 mm, universally used as a starting material in the cable industry.
Deposit
Natural collection of minerals in the earth, arising as a result of various geological processes.
EBITDA
Earnings before interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization.
Electrolytic copper
The product of electrolytic copper refining.
Electrolytic copper refining technology
A process involving the electrolytic refining of metal, in this case copper. The periodic removal of portions of the electrolite is required to maintain the level of contaminates at an acceptable level, which is a deciding factor in the quality of electrlytically-refined copper. The contaminated eletrolyte and slimes are used as the raw material in the recovery of some of the metals accompanying the copper, such as silver, gold, selenium and nickel.
Electrorefining
The process of electrolising dissoluble anodes which are produced from refinable alloys. During this process, which takes places under specially-designed conditions, refined metal collects on a starter sheet, while other elements remain in the electrolite in solid or liquid form.
Ethanethiol
An organic chemical compound, which may occur in the form of gas or clear liquid with a distinct odor. It is used to warn mine employees against hazards – in the event of danger it is intentionally released into the ventilation system.
Flotation (ore-processing)
A stage in the process of breaking down ore into fragments of varying composition of useful elements which exploits differences in the degree of wettability of individual mineral grains. Wellwetted minerals fall to the bottom of the flotation tank, while the poorly-wetted grains (those whose wettability decreases due to the action of so-called collecting agents, e.g. xanthates) collect at the surface of the froth created from froth-inducing agents.
Flotation tailings
Waste remaining after the ore processing process; can be utilised or stored.

Abbreviations and units used in the document

kg
kilogram (1000 grams)
t
metric tonne (1000 kilograms)
K t
thousand metric tonnes (1000 t)
ths
thousand
M
million
g/t
grams per tonne
SX-EW
Solvent Extraction Electrowinning (technology used to produce copper cathodes)
m a.s.l.
meters above sea level
m
meter
km
kilometer (1000 meters)
m2
square meter
USD
United States Dollar
Cu
copper
Au
gold
Ag
silver
Pt
platinum
Pd
palladium
Ni
nickel
Mo
molybdenum
MoS2
molybdenum disulfide
lb
pund (unit of weight)
oz t
troy ounce (unit of weight)
CIM
Canadian Institute of Mining, Metalurgy and Petroleum
M&I
Measured and indicated mineral resources